The History of Nepal is characterized by its inaccessible position in the Himalayas and its two dominant neighbors, India and China. Even though Nepal's heartland was independent through most of its long history, its territorial boundaries have varied greatly over time and an internal mosaic of kingdoms modernized often: right from the period of Mahajanapadas, through Greater Nepal to the British Raj.
Due to the arrival of disparate settler groups from outside through the ages, it is now a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, multi-lingual country. Its population is Mostly Hindu with a significant presence of Buddhists, who were in majority at one time in the past. Nepal was split into three kingdoms from the 15th to 18th century when it was combined under a kingdom. The national language of Nepal is called 'Nepali', a name given - long after the unification of Nepal - to the language called Khas Kura. Nepal experienced a failed struggle for democracy in the 20th century. During the 1990s and until 2008, the country was in civil strife. A peace treaty was signed in 2008 and elections were held in the same year.
Many of the ills of Nepal have been answerable to the royal family of Nepal. In a historical vote for the election of the constituent assembly, Nepalis voted to oust the monarchy in Nepal. In June 2008, Nepalis ousted the royal household. Nepal was formally known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal when it became a federal republic.